He was involved in a large variety of concrete operations, and briefed senior military commanders up to the level of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. He was particularly active in South-East Asia, where his connections were little short of miraculous: Sun Yat Sen was his godfather, he knew Chiang Kai Shek well, and he had personal dealings with Mao. I found it easy to imagine that it had been composed secretly by a disaffected senior member of the Inner Party. Linebarger is breathtakingly clear and cynical about the central goal of psychological warfare: to use propaganda in order to affect the minds and emotions of people for military purposes. Propaganda can be either "white" openly issued by the group who in reality are responsible for creating it or "black" made to look as though it came from someone else.
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Learn how and when to remove this template message In , Linebarger married Margaret Snow. They had a daughter in and another in They divorced in In , Linebarger married again to Genevieve Collins; they had no children.
They remained married until his death from a heart attack in , at Johns Hopkins University Medical Center in Baltimore , Maryland , at age Linebarger had expressed a wish to retire to Australia, which he had visited in his travels. His widow, Genevieve Collins Linebarger, was interred with him on November 16, Linebarger also employed the literary pseudonyms "Carmichael Smith" for his political thriller Atomsk , "Anthony Bearden" for his poetry and "Felix C.
Forrest" for the novels Ria and Carola. The total volume of his science fiction output is relatively small, because of his time-consuming profession and his early death. In his later years, Linebarger proudly wore a tie with the Chinese characters for this name embroidered on it.
As an expert in psychological warfare, Linebarger was very interested in the newly developing fields of psychology and psychiatry. He used many of their concepts in his fiction. His fiction often has religious overtones or motifs, particularly evident in characters who have no control over their actions.
James B. Lewis and J. Over the next few thousand years, mankind spreads to thousands of worlds and human life becomes safe but sterile, as robots and the animal-derived Underpeople take over many human jobs and humans themselves are genetically programmed as embryos for specified duties.
Towards the end of this period, the Instrumentality attempts to revive old cultures and languages in a process known as the Rediscovery of Man, where humans emerges from their mundane utopia and Underpeople are freed from slavery.
For years, Linebarger had a pocket notebook which he had filled with ideas about The Instrumentality and additional stories in the series. But while in a small boat in a lake or bay in the mid 60s, he leaned over the side, and his notebook fell out of his breast pocket into the water, where it was lost forever. Another story claims that he accidentally left the notebook in a restaurant in Rhodes in With the book gone, he felt empty of ideas, and decided to start a new series which was an allegory of Mid-Eastern politics.
The settings range from a postapocalyptic landscape with walled cities , defended by agents of the Instrumentality, to a state of sterile utopia, in which freedom can be found only deep below the surface, in long-forgotten and buried anthropogenic strata. They are ultimately more optimistic and distinctive. However, extremely high taxes ensure that everyone on the planet lives a frugal, rural life, like the farmers of old Australia, to keep the Norstrilians tough.
The punishment world Shayol cf. Sheol , where criminals are punished by the regrowth and harvesting of their organs for transplanting Planoforming spacecraft , which are crewed by humans telepathically linked with cats to defend against the attacks of malevolent entities in space, which are perceived by the humans as dragons, and by the cats as gigantic rats, in "The Game of Rat and Dragon".
The Underpeople, animals modified into human form and intelligence to fulfill servile roles, and treated as property. Several stories feature clandestine efforts to liberate the Underpeople and grant them civil rights. They are seen everywhere throughout regions controlled by the Instrumentality.
Names of Underpeople have a single-letter prefix based on their animal species. Habermans and their supervisors, Scanners, who are essential for space travel, but at the cost of having their sensory nerves cut to block the "pain of space", and who perceive only by vision and various life-support implants.
A technological breakthrough removes the need for the treatment, but resistance among the Scanners to their perceived loss of status ensues, forming the basis of the story "Scanners Live in Vain". Early works in the timeline include neologisms which are not explained to any great extent, but serve to produce an atmosphere of strangeness.
These words are usually derived from non-English words. Character names in the stories often derive from words in languages other than English. Smith seemed particularly fond of using numbers for this purpose. For instance, the name "Lord Sto Odin" in the story "Under Old Earth" is derived from the Russian words for "One hundred and one", сто один; it also suggests the name of the Norse god Odin. Remnants of contemporary culture accordingly appear as valued antiquities or sometimes just as unrecognized survivals, lending a rare feeling of nostalgia for the present to the stories.
CHAPTER 1 Historic Examples of Psychological Warfare Psychological warfare is waged before, during, and after war; it is not waged against the opposing psychological warfare operators; it is not controlled by the laws, usages, and customs of war; and it cannot be defined in terms of terrain, order of battle, or named engagements. It is a continuous process. Success or failure is often known only months or years after the execution of the operation. Yet success, though incalculable, can be overwhelming; and failure, though undetectable, can be mortal.
Psychological Warfare (WWII Era Reprint)
Lord Bryce led the commission of to document German atrocities committed against Belgian civilians. The start of modern psychological operations in war is generally dated to the World War I. By that point, Western societies were increasingly educated and urbanized, and mass media was available in the form of large circulation newspapers and posters. It was also possible to transmit propaganda to the enemy via the use of airborne leaflets or through explosive delivery systems like modified artillery or mortar rounds. These capabilities were easily transitioned to the task of warfare. The British also had a diplomatic service that maintained good relations with many nations around the world, in contrast to the reputation of the German services.
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Linebarger Psychological Warfare, by Paul M. Linebarger I am happy to report that Psychological Warfare is back in print. Clicking on either the title or the image will take you to its page on Amazon. It is a facsimile of the second revised edition, from the s, brought back into print by Gateways Books and Tapes. Many other publishers have thought of reprinting it, have even emailed me that they were definitely going to do it, but fell through. Kudos to these folks for actually doing it!
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