A CRITIQUE OF ANTI-ANTHROPOCENTRIC BIOCENTRISM PDF

Faek Each species is in this process of samsara until one attains moksha liberation. John Mizzoni — — Environmental Ethics 26 1: In the words of Mahavira: Some of this criticism grows out of the concern that biocentrism is an anti-human paradigm and that it will not hesitate to sacrifice human well-being for the greater good. Retrieved 2 November Jainism encourages people to practice an attitude of compassion towards all life. Green Issues and Debates: A more complex form of criticism focuses on the contradictions of biocentrism.

Author:Arashizilkree Tolrajas
Country:Belarus
Language:English (Spanish)
Genre:Spiritual
Published (Last):14 November 2013
Pages:242
PDF File Size:2.78 Mb
ePub File Size:16.72 Mb
ISBN:236-6-31922-774-4
Downloads:85426
Price:Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]
Uploader:Doukora



Definition Edit The term biocentrism encompasses all environmental ethics that "extend the status of moral object from human beings to all living things in nature". It states that nature does not exist simply to be used or consumed by humans, but that humans are simply one species amongst many, [6] and that because we are part of an ecosystem , any actions which negatively affect the living systems of which we are a part adversely affect us as well, [6] [7] whether or not we maintain a biocentric worldview.

All species are part of a system of interdependence. All living organisms pursue their own "good" in their own ways. Human beings are not inherently superior to other living things. It observes the consequences of reducing biodiversity on both small and large scales and points to the inherent value all species have to the environment. The environment is seen for what it is; the biosphere within which we live and depend on its diversity for our health.

From these observations the ethical points are raised. History and development Edit Biocentric ethics differs from classical and traditional ethical thinking. Rather than focusing on strict moral rules, as in Classical ethics, it focuses on attitudes and character.

In contrast with traditional ethics, it is nonhierarchical and gives priority to the natural world rather than to humankind exclusively. Using membership in the species Homo sapiens as a criterion of moral importance is completely arbitrary. Of the remaining criteria we might consider, only sentience is a plausible criterion of moral importance.

Using sentience as a criterion of moral importance entails that we extend the same basic moral consideration i. Therefore, we ought to extend to animals the same equality of consideration that we extend to human beings. However, not all biological entities are sentient, consider: algae, plants and trees, fungi, lichens, mollusks, protozoa, for example.

For an ethical theory to be biocentric, it must have a reason for extending ethical inclusion to the entire biosphere as in Taylor and Schweitzer. The requirement for environmental ethics to move beyond sentience as criteria for inclusion in the moral realm is discussed in Regan. This community consists of a system of interdependence between all members, both physically, and in terms of relationships with other species.

Every organism is a " teleological centre of life", that is, each organism has a purpose and a reason for being, which is inherently "good" or "valuable". Humans are not inherently superior to other species.

This publication sparked the beginning of biocentrist views by introducing evolution and "its removal of humans from their supernatural origins and placement into the framework of natural laws". He asserts that ethics should be extended to the land as "an evolutionary possibility and an ecological necessity". Outside of formal philosophical works biocentric thought is common among pre-colonial tribal peoples who knew no world other than the natural world.

In law Edit The paradigm of biocentrism and the values that it promotes are beginning to be used in law. In recent years, cities in Maine, Pennsylvania, New Hampshire and Virginia have adopted laws that protect the rights of nature. Article 71 states that nature "has the right to integral respect for its existence and for the maintenance and regeneration of its life cycles, structure, functions and evolutionary processes".

Please help this article by looking for better, more reliable sources. Unreliable citations may be challenged or deleted. December Islam Edit In Islam : In Islam, biocentric ethics stem from the belief that all of creation belongs to Allah God , not humans, and to assume that non-human animals and plants exist merely to benefit humankind leads to environmental destruction and misuse.

Muhammad was once asked whether there would be a reward for those who show charity to nature and animals, to which he replied, "for charity shown to each creature with a wet heart [i. Brahman God is the "efficient cause" and Prakrti nature , is the "material cause" of the universe. It is believed that one lives 84, lifetimes before one becomes a human. Each species is in this process of samsara until one attains moksha liberation.

Another doctrinal source for the equal treatment of all life is found in the Rigveda. The Rigveda states that trees and plants possess divine healing properties. It is still popularly believed that every tree has a Vriksa-devata a tree deity. Trees are ritually worshiped through prayer, offerings, and the sacred thread ceremony. The Vriksa-devata worshiped as manifestations of the Divine. Tree planting is considered a religious duty. Jainism encourages people to practice an attitude of compassion towards all life.

The principle of interdependence is also very important in Jainism. This states that all of nature is bound together, and that "if one does not care for nature one does not care for oneself. Jainism discourages wasting the gifts of nature, and encourages its practitioners to reduce their needs as far as possible. Gandhi , a great proponent of Jainism, once stated "There is enough in this world for human needs, but not for human wants.

The ocean, the sky, the air are all interrelated, and interdependent—water is life and air is life. Buddhism teaches that "once we treat nature as our friend, to cherish it, then we can see the need to change from the attitude of dominating nature to an attitude of working with nature—we are an intrinsic part of all existence rather than seeing ourselves as in control of it.

Some of this criticism grows out of the concern that biocentrism is an anti-human paradigm and that it will not hesitate to sacrifice human well-being for the greater good. Opposed to anthropocentrism , which sees humans as having a higher status than other species, [29] biocentrism puts humans on a par with the rest of nature, and not above it.

Therefore, he suggests that the real reason humans should reduce their destructive behavior in relation to other species is not because we are equals but because the destruction of other species will also result in our own destruction.

BAVINCK OUR REASONABLE FAITH PDF

A CRITIQUE OF ANTI-ANTHROPOCENTRIC BIOCENTRISM PDF

Definition Edit The term biocentrism encompasses all environmental ethics that "extend the status of moral object from human beings to all living things in nature". It states that nature does not exist simply to be used or consumed by humans, but that humans are simply one species amongst many, [6] and that because we are part of an ecosystem , any actions which negatively affect the living systems of which we are a part adversely affect us as well, [6] [7] whether or not we maintain a biocentric worldview. All species are part of a system of interdependence. All living organisms pursue their own "good" in their own ways. Human beings are not inherently superior to other living things.

TUTORIEL PHP5 PDF

Biocentrism (ethics)

Dusar Biocentrism is most commonly associated with the work of Paul Taylorespecially his book Respect for Nature: The principle of interdependence is also very important in Jainism. Each species anti-anhhropocentric in this process of samsara until one attains moksha liberation. For the cosmological concept, see biocentric universe. Another doctrinal source for the equal treatment of all life is found in the Rigveda. Therefore, he suggests that the real reason humans should reduce their destructive behavior in relation to other species is not because we are equals but because the destruction of other species will also result in our own destruction.

Related Articles