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Excellent, thanks very much for the link and the pdf! Here are those responses from the other site, first by Dennis Delucia: The roll is to a drummer what a long-tone [sustain] is to a brass player. Therefore, in order to create a "sustain", the rolls had to contain more beats in order to fill up the space of a quarter note, or half note, or dotted quarter, or even an eighth-note. In the twentieth century, military bands moved the tempo up to Drum and bugle corps have moved the tempos up much faster, often between and , or even to !

As a result, the 7-stroke roll became a 5-stroke; the stroke roll [when played as a full quarter note] became a 9-stroke; and a stroke roll became a stroke, simply because they fit better into the faster tempos and yet still created a good "sustain" [roll].

The numbers in parentheses refer to the numbers on that page: The 7-stroke roll can be played as an eighth-note by using a single-stroke-four as the underlying rhythm [ 1].

It can also be played with sixteenth-notes underneath, starting on "e" [ 2]. It is almost always written as an eighth-note, serving as a pickup roll [ 3]. In the U. The 5-stroke roll can be started either "on" the beat or "off" the beat [as a pickup roll] with 2 sixteenths and a release as the underlying rhythm [ 4].

As such, the Wilcoxin notation, a quarter note into two grace-notes, might be a result of the notation of his day. Personally, I would write it as a quarter note tied to the next beat, with the number 11 over it to indicate 11 strokes [ 7]. You could interpret the roll by "feel" ONLY [probably the way players learned it] or you could apply a quintuplet figure underlying the roll [ 7]. PAS lists the stroke roll as one of the 40 Rudiments, and writes it as in 5.

You could start the roll on "a" and attach it to a quarter note roll [ 6]. As tempos increased, the 9-stroke roll became the standard "quarter-note" roll, since it works mathematically well, with 4 sixteenths underlying the roll [ 8 and 9]. The stroke roll has NO mathematical basis when played as a dotted quarter, the way it is usually written [as in the Bruce and Emmett piece].

The roll is written to contain 13 strokes [ 10 and 12] but is played with 15 strokes. You might see it written as in example 11, where it IS mathematically correct. The stroke roll replaced the 15 as tempos became faster. The 13 IS mathematically correct, with sixteenths underlying the roll [ 12 and 13]. Or, they would play with a definite 16th note roll base and simply extend the downbeat by a 16th note, which creates an odd kind of tempo-lag.

But the tradition way is much more fun on a rope drum and really creates an authentic sound.


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