By changing the areas of the plate that are exposed and the length of time the plate is submerged in the acid bath, the engraver can obtain fine and varying shades of gray that closely resemble watercolor washes. Association Copy copy that belonged to someone connected with the author or the contents of a book. Boards Hard front and rear covers of a bound book which are covered in cloth, leather or paper. Of particular value to collectors as evidence of a very early form of the book. Broadside Sheet printed on one side, typically for public display, usually larger than folio size a folio being a broadside-size sheet printed on both sides and folded once, to make four pages. Calf Binding material made from cowhide—versatile, durable, usually tan or brown in color, of smooth texture with no or little apparent grain.
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By changing the areas of the plate that are exposed and the length of time the plate is submerged in the acid bath, the engraver can obtain fine and varying shades of gray that closely resemble watercolor washes. Association Copy copy that belonged to someone connected with the author or the contents of a book.
Boards Hard front and rear covers of a bound book which are covered in cloth, leather or paper. Of particular value to collectors as evidence of a very early form of the book. Broadside Sheet printed on one side, typically for public display, usually larger than folio size a folio being a broadside-size sheet printed on both sides and folded once, to make four pages.
Calf Binding material made from cowhide—versatile, durable, usually tan or brown in color, of smooth texture with no or little apparent grain. Reverse calf, with a distinctive suede-like texture, is occasionally used. Chromolithograph Lithograph printed in colors, typically three or more. A-C, for example, would indicate a quarto volume composed of three signatures or gatherings of eight pages each for a total of 24 pages.
Colophon Printed note at the end of a text containing information about the printing of the book. Doublure Pastedowns made not of paper but of leather, for decorative purposes. Duodecimo 12MO Smaller than an octavo, typically less than six inches tall; smaller formats, such as 24mo and 32mo, are uncommon.
Edition Print-run from a single setting of type without substantial change. Depending on demand, any number of printings can be made from a setting of type For example, a first printing might consist of copies, followed by a second printing of copies; in which case the book would have a first edition, first printing of copies, and a first edition, second printing of copies.
Engraving Illustration produced by carving lines into a metal plate. The image is then transferred by pressing thick dampened paper against the metal plate with great force—requiring engravings to be printed on a separate stock and separate press from any text. Errata List of mistakes and corrections noted after printing, often compiled on a separate sheet or slip and inserted into the text block. Flyleaves Additional blank leaves following or preceding the endpapers.
Folio Book composed of sheets that are folded once and printed on both sides, making two leaves and four pages. Typically above 14 inches tall. Oblong folios are produced the same way but bound at the short edge, producing a book typically more than 14 inches deep. Fore-Edge Edge of the book furthest from the spine. Occasionally the text of a book will be put into a specialized book press and painted, often with a scene from the book or a landscape, so that the painting is invisible when the book is closed but visible when somebody bends the text and fans the pages—known as a fore-edge painting.
Foxing Light brown spots that naturally appear on some papers due to oxidation as they age. Frontispiece An illustration facing the title page of a book. A single gathering of a quarto book, then, would be a sheet folded twice, containing four leaves, eight pages of text.. Gilt Edges The three exposed edges of a book have been smoothed and gilded. Remaining half-titles are therefore of interest to collectors. Illuminated Decorated by hand. Typically early printed books and especially manuscripts.
Incunable From the cradle of printing, i. Issue A group of books issued by the publisher as a discrete unit.
Japanese Vellum Expensive handmade paper often used in deluxe editions. Lithograph Illustration produced by transferring an image drawn on a carefully prepared stone to paper.
The process allowed illustrations to more closely resemble the original drawings, paintings or sketches, as it gave the lithographer a freedom of line impossible to achieve in earlier intaglio and relief processes. It does not require the same sort of pressure as an engraving to transfer the image, but still has to be printed on separate stock from the text Marginalia Handwritten notes made in the margins by a previous owner.
Not uncommon in older, larger books, it is not considered a defect, so long as all integral leaves are present. Morocco Binding material made from goatskin—versatile, durable, with a distinctive pebbled texture and visible grain. So-called because much of the raw material originally came from the tanneries of North Africa other types of goatskin bindings denoting regions of origin include levant, turkey, niger.
Offset The unintended transfer of ink from one printed page to an adjacent page. The term implies that the binding is modern, or recent, unless otherwise specified. Plate Full-page illustration printed separately from but bound with the text.
Point Variation in text, illustration, design or format that allows a bibliographer to distinguish between different editions and different printings of the same edition, or between different states or issues of the same printing. Presentation Copy Book given as a gift by its author, illustrator or publisher.
Sometimes refers to a volume given by a notable donor. Provenance History of a particular copy of a book. Raised Bands Horizontal protruding strips found on the spine of a book. Reback To supply a worn binding with a new spine, usually made of the same material as the rest of the binding and decorated to match. Recto The front side of a leaf. Uncut When the edges of the text block most apparent at the fore and lower edges have not been trimmed to a uniform size, and are therefore characterized by a ragged or deckle edge.
A book may be uncut but opened—i. Unopened When the folds of the sheets of paper making up the text block have not been trimmed away or opened with a paper-knife. While this makes it impossible to read all of the pages, it also indicates a probability that the text block has not been altered since leaving the printer.
Vellum Binding material made from specially treated calfskin—durable, with a distinctive ivory color and smooth appearance. Can be tooled in gilt or blind.
So-called Japan vellum or Japon is a type of thick paper that has been polished smooth and given a glossy finish to resemble vellum. Verso The back or reverse side of a leaf or page. The woodblock, or multiple blocks, can be fit into the page along with the type, allowing text and illustrations to be printed in the same print run and share the same page not possible with engravings, which require thicker, damp paper and much more force; nor with lithographs, which require a different printing process altogether.
Woodcuts preceded moveable type and are the earliest known printing technology. Wood-Engraving Engraving made with the graver or burin on the cross-section of a piece of boxwood; the harder wood and finer tools allow for more delicate, finely detailed images, while the block can still be set in the page alongside text and printed on the same stock as the text.
While much older, wood engravings enjoyed an important renaissance in the late eighteenth century through Thomas Bewick and continued in popularity thorugh the nineteenth century. Wormhole Tiny pinhole-sized trails left by bookworms as they eat through a text block.
Much more common in older books printed on handmade papers with a high rag content than in books printed on manufactured papers made from wood pulp with a higher acidic content.
Wrappers Paper coverings—plain, marbled or printed—attached by stitches, staples or glue to a text block to identify it and afford it some protection though much more fragile than a binding in plain, cloth or leather-covered boards. Receive Electronic Catalogues.
Bernd and Hilla Becher
Photo Histories is not responsible for third party content such as adverts and websites linked to from skulptkren. Look on the walls of any gallery showing photography as art today and you will see their legacy. A typography of technical constructions. I n the monograph Anonymous Sculptures the conceptual artists Bernhard and Hildgard Becher grouped clinically shot large format black and white images of uniform but non-identical structures in a way that exposed the differences and the similarities of these structures in a compelling way.
anonyme skulpturen de becher
becher anonyme skulpturen
Anonyme Skulpturen : a typology of technical constructions