It is a quick sketch of a complex country with a complex history. I have not developed the idea of regionalism in this sketch, nor have I explored the question of tribal peoples within India, which presents a new set of problems and issues that are also worthy of exploration. I have also not dealt with the questions of teacher preparation. Rather than thinking of each new phase as supplanting the earlier one, we can think of them as a series of waves entering into the Indian space over time, coexisting, interacting with and altering the status of the earlier ones, but not fully displacing them.
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It is a quick sketch of a complex country with a complex history. I have not developed the idea of regionalism in this sketch, nor have I explored the question of tribal peoples within India, which presents a new set of problems and issues that are also worthy of exploration.
I have also not dealt with the questions of teacher preparation. Rather than thinking of each new phase as supplanting the earlier one, we can think of them as a series of waves entering into the Indian space over time, coexisting, interacting with and altering the status of the earlier ones, but not fully displacing them. In contemporary India, we continue to find multiple ideas coexisting and also enjoying legitimacy with different sections of society.
Historical context 2The modern school system in India has its origins in the colonial system of education that was shaped between the s and s. Dominant features of the current system, including the centrality of the textbook and examinations, and a highly centralised system of education administration within a federal structure, centralised at the level of each state , can all be directly traced to the colonial institutional structures.
The new system was accessible to all castes and communities and over time also addressed the education of girls; however, it was never intended to be a universal education system. Much of the spread of the system is to some degree accounted for by government effort in some parts of India, but also that of Christian missionaries, local rulers who promoted education in their princely states, social reformers, and finally, the involvement of the private sector.
The twin interests of social reform through enlightenment, knowledge, and education, as well as the lure of employment through Western education, drove the expansion of the system.
It is worth remembering that this period was also the time when in the colonising European countries the idea of national systems of education and compulsory schooling were developing, and curricular and pedagogic imaginations were being re-formed.
What is striking is how quickly debates and developments in Europe found their reflection in the colonies and also how curricular and pedagogic innovation and development in the colonies sometimes preceded and informed progressive changes in Europe. Indigenous centres for shastric learning continued but on a much smaller scale and with limited sources of patronage.
Within Indian schools even today, we continue to find the idea of the guru as well as traditional modes of teaching and learning. Early phase of education reform 3The phase in which Indian nationalism emerged, eventually leading to the anti-colonial nationalist movement s to s , may be regarded as a first phase of education reform. Reforms were largely informed by a reaction to the colonial rejection of indigenous knowledge and identity, but also by the need for social reform, modern ideas, and the benefits of science, which were a part of the colonial curriculum.
Four distinctive responses, from the late s and early s onwards, can be summarised as follows. A second response was formulated by Rabindranath Tagore, a celebrated poet, who reacted to the alienating nature of colonial education, and sought to build an alternative system that drew on art and related to nature as its core. Tagore was linked to humanistic education movements in Europe around the same time.
A third response came from Jyotirao Phule, whose focus was on the education of the Dalits and women and who argued for an education that was more relevant to rural contexts. The fourth response was from Gandhi, who also formulated an anti-colonial education vision that placed work and the learning of crafts at its core, in place of a curriculum that was academic and bookish.
As Indians gained control over education policy, particularly in the post-independence period from onwards, these interests began to inform the policymaking of a national system of education, though not without contestation, and perhaps were eventually subverted, assuming tokenistic forms within the mainstream. The education policy formally linked the spread of education, and in particular of science, to national development. Paralleling developments in the United-Kingdom in particular Nuffield Science , university scientists worked in rural middle schools developing a science curriculum that completely rejected textbookish knowledge and emphasised learning by doing, thinking, and reasoning.
These efforts extended from science to social science and primary school curricula between the s and the early part of the s. The s and s were also the period in which Bloom cast a powerful influence on curriculum development and teacher education — with the United States Agency for International Development USAID supporting Indian scholars to study under Bloom. The same period also saw the emergence of new cognitive theories of learning in the West. The teacher-centred approach to instruction that drew on Bloom and behaviourism did not challenge traditional textbook curriculum.
The HSTP, which challenged conventional notions of school curriculum and teaching, remained an experiment at the periphery. Universalisation of Elementary Education and reform phase from the s onwards 7From the mids onwards the curriculum and pedagogy in Indian schools have been increasingly influenced by central government initiatives and supported by civil society activism in a range of large-scale initiatives and programmes for universalising elementary education.
These centrally sponsored schemes in mission mode have progressively enabled the inclusion and spread of child-centred ideas and social justice educational themes and concerns. Large-scale initiatives began to link the question of access to school to curricula and pedagogy in addition to infrastructure and recruitment of teachers.
The DPEP and subsequent Sarva Siksha Abhiyan programme, have increasingly oriented curricular and pedagogic considerations towards the issues of inclusion and equity. These large-scale centrally sponsored initiatives have generally favoured a movement towards a child-centred curriculum. It must be acknowledged that between and , these efforts almost exclusively concern the government schooling system, which has become equated with the question of education of the children of the poor.
There is a growing presence of privately provided services to schools, from curriculum and teachers to testing, not only in the rich private schools, but also in private schools that cater to the poor and to government.
In this range of private schools which are English medium, we still find forms of the exam-oriented, textbook cultures adapted to new imperatives of competitive examinations. Since , there have also been more sweeping developments and changes. The curriculum favoured Hindutva nationalism with implications not only for history but for science and mathematics, with the inclusion of non-Western contributions and including astrology as a science.
The Right to Education Act has further ushered in changes in evaluation through continuous comprehensive evaluation CEE , the implications of which are just beginning to be felt in the schooling system. It is useful to remember that the school system in India including the government, private, and aided schools is highly differentiated and stratified — not only in terms of its clientele groups, but also in terms of curricular and pedagogic forms.
They not only coexist but also influence and alter each other and use various political, bureaucratic, corporate, religious and civil society levers to influence, engage with, or remain immune from national structures and processes of change or reform. Following the Right to Education Act, we seem to have entered into a period of ideological intensifications that will be decisive for the ability of the Indian state to bring in a national system of education that includes a curriculum and pedagogy.
Whether this national system will be homogenising and standardising or supportive of plurality with social justice remains to be seen or imagined.
New Delhi: Sage. Kumar, Krishna and Sarangapani, P. Naik, J. Contributions to Indian Sociology 24 1 Sarangapani, P.
Constructing School Knowledge : An Ethnography of Learning in an Indian Village
Full khowledge PDF Send by e-mail. Since then she has researched indigenous knowledge transmission in a tribal community and researched in various ways recent curricular reform initiatives of the Government of India and Non-Government Agencies. Knowledge, curricula, and teaching methods: the case of India Dominant features of the current system, including the centrality of the textbook and examinations, and a highly centralised system of education administration within a federal structure, centralised at the level of each statecan all be directly traced to the colonial institutional structures. What is striking is how quickly debates and developments in Europe found their reflection in the colonies and also how curricular and pedagogic innovation and development in saragnapani colonies sometimes preceded and informed progressive changes in Europe. Please enter your User Name, email ID and a password to register. Shop with an easy mind and be rest assured that your online shopping experience with SapnaOnline will be the best at all times.
CONSTRUCTING SCHOOL KNOWLEDGE SARANGAPANI PDF
Constructing school knowledge : an ethnography of learning in an Indian village
CONSTRUCTING SCHOOL KNOWLEDGE - ENGLISH - PADMA SARANGAPANI