Rolando M Gripaldo [Slightly revised paper originally published in , , and Filipino philosophy: Traditional approach, Part I, Section 1. It concludes with the relevance of the nationalist challenge. His parents were middle-class. The nationalism he developed, however, was not elitist but mass-based. For Constantino, nationalism must be people-oriented.
|Published (Last):||23 November 2014|
|PDF File Size:||3.69 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||5.12 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
Get custom paper He had been a nationalist in heart and spirit. I will be faced with the task of analyzing the said compilation, giving insights and overviews and the much-awaited conclusion. As a former subversive, I was dogmatized with Karl Marx, Mao Tse Tung and Renato Constantino not because the latter was a leftist like me but more of a nationalist in the truest sense of the word.
He was born on March 10, He was the eldest among the three children of Atty. Amador Constantino and Francisca Reyes. While in his pre-adolescent years, he had a grand time listening to the stories of his maternal grandmother about the abuses made by the Spanish friars.
In one way or another, he had developed an early consciousness of the plight of his fellowmen. All throughout his school years, he was a product of public schools; Arellano High School and University of the Philippines.
He was the youngest editor-in-chief of the Philippine Collegian the school organ of UP. He joined the Filipino troops in Bataan during the Japanese regime and luckily was not captured since he went into hiding in Bulacan.
He was also a lecturer here and abroad since it has something to do with being an executive secretary to the Philippine Mission to United Nations from to He was also a well-known historian and writer.
He was married to Letizia Roxas since They have two children; Renato Jr. He died on September 15, He did not shield Renato from the true realities of life, the existence of oppression and exploitation. At a young age, he had the consciousness of being a nationalist, of someone who wants to uplift the sufferings of his fellowmen.
Through his columns at several newspapers, his lectures, his teachings and his works he had reached his goal and that is awakening the Filipinos and I am not afraid to admit I was and still is one of his disciples. It would not be a fair deal if I go straight to the overview of this book without tackling some of the pamphlets related to this book such as Nationalism and Liberation, Synthetic Culture and Development and Identity and Consciousness.
In his pamphlet, Nationalism and Liberation. He traced the history of colonization in the Philippines. From the time that the two superpowers of the Old World; Spain and Portugal had spent money for sponsoring expeditions to the discovery of the Philippines by Ferdinand Magellan to the propagation of Christianity to the natives as a tool of imperialism.
Constantino had been trying to awaken the consciousness of each one of us to what had been the truth all along. A distorted one as he aptly described it. We have been brain-washed with their ideas and philosophies which in one way or another had created diversity among the Filipino people. In this line, Constantino had compared us with other Southeast asian countries like Thailand and Indonesia to name a few; the former had not experienced colonial rule but the latter had been a different case since it was under colonial rule from the British to the French yet Indonesia had opted to be independent amidst its diversity.
It had adopted political and economic independence through the consciousness among its people starting with one language which is Bahasa Indonesia.
Through History, Constantino wants us, the Filipino people to learn the lessons from the past and that we can never be always dependent on a foreign colony to survive.
We have to struggle to be free from oppression and exploitation of foreign powers. He wants us to go back to the grassroots; to be self-reliant in our ways. Economic independence is the goal here and the key is not to depend on Transnational Corporations TNCs. The government should create programs which would benefit more the Filipino people than the aliens. We have to turn this country from an import-oriented to an export-oriented one.
Renato Constantino had explored the ills of neocolonialism. No society can exist without a culture. Communication means to convey a message and we cannot deny the fact that Media has been a powerful tool in opening the doors of communication among the people. From the information known and unknown to people, we are on guard day by day with the changes. The power of Neocolonialism plays a vital role in our having a synthetic culture. We have been influenced by the foreign power, the United States most particularly.
We have this western consciousness in each one of us and according to Constantino, if this would be the case where is the Filipino consciousness? Filipino identity?
That being the CEOs and presidents will only be far-fetched dreams. An example would be we know more about Tom Cruise than Nora Aunor. We opted to patronize foreign movies than local ones. As shallow as these examples, it still signifies one thing, we are more identified, familiar and attached with western influences than our own. And that is what Constantino had been describing and detailing on the synthetic culture. He wants a People-Culture than a Synthetic one and this can be achieved through: a formulation and development of comprehensive national communication policies which should evolve from broad consultations with all sectors concerned b removal of obstacles and restrictions which derive from the concentration of media ownership, public or private from commercial influence on press and broadcasting c effective legal measures to limit the process of concentration and monopolization d strengthening cultural identity and creativity through the establishment of national cultural policies such as going back to the grassroots culture e development of essential elements of communication f access to technical information and advanced communications technology and g democratizing media management.
He had traced the real truth to two factors namely Elitism and Ignorance. From the pre-colonial times, the barangay form of government had been ruled by the datu and there had been a disparity between the datu and the alipin saguigilid.
Then when the Spaniards came, they used the Filipino elite to exploit the resources. Laurel, they have been educated abroad but still imbibed with western consciousness. Under the neocolonial rule, it is still the same ball game, our leaders have been educated and trained abroad but still the identity remains the same, western development had been more attractive and where do we contribute this mistake?
This painful result? To us, the Filipino people. We have not learned anything from History. Until now, we are still ignorant. We are still unidentified and not conscious of being Filipinos. It is like going to school without an Identification card ID we are still nameless. Constantino had been clear on this topic. Unless the consciousness develops , identity will follow. But it is an illusion until now because we can see for ourselves that we need the United States to keep our economy going, that we are still dreaming of becoming the 57th state of United States.
Unless there will be an economic revolution which could start from going back to the grassroots, and that we will realize that our country is an agricultural one more than an industrial zone. Until the time that we will have the consciousness that we are Filipinos with less dependency on Western influences.
That will be the only time that our identity as Filipinos will be established. That will also be the time that the spirit of Filipino nationalism has been embraced by each and everyone of us. Emilio Aguinaldo in Hongkong, twas the mock battle took place. We were not aware of the fact that US has come not only to conquer but to stay, it was only later after the Hares-Hawes Cutting Law took place during the Commonwealth period that we had this instant realization that United States was a mother colony and we are under their beck and call.
Adding to the fact, that there was the outbreak of Second World War, and that Philippines was in the dumps economically speaking. US was there to lend a hand through foreign aid. The government had not been fully aware of the motives of the US government because of the value instilled by Spaniards within us, the proverbial utang-na-loob.
We were now having that idea that we owe them. That is where the myth came in; according to Constantino, that reality cannot be separated from fantasy and that United States had been our knight in shining armor. So a special bond or relationship had been formed. Every law and treaty from the Tydings-McDuffie law up to the Bell Trade Act shows the control of the US over the Philippines for two purposes as cited by Constantino; he referred to it as the twin premises of the myth: a that there was no substantial resistance to American rule and b that the Filipinos were then incapable of self-government.
There was resistance and the Filipinos were capable of self- government as proven by the barangay system during pre-colonial times. We can say that US is here to stay and I should not wonder if after the term of Noynoy Aquino there will be plan to make Philippines the 57th state of the United States of America.
It will not be a big surprise for all of us since as I have mentioned earlier, we are more attracted to Uncle Sam than Juan dela Cruz. The US had been wise enough to impose a civilian rule rather than military rule. When there was the killing of Filipino troops in Vietnam, United States was aware that it will create a chaos within the Philippine government so the latter, wise as he is had groomed a young senator named Ferdinand Marcos to run for presidency in and eventually won the hearts of the Filipinos as first because of his advocacy for the poor.
As they say, in history, it was too late to realize that Marcos was not out to rule fairly but to destroy the preservation of nationalism which was slowly growing in others since here and then he was a boytoy of the US government. Rizal was an illustrado, he was not from an impoverished family so he had the opportunity to study and trained in different schools abroad. He was a genius, a jack of all trades. He was a learned man. For many, he was the way out for independence from Spanish rule.
In the long run, the realization dawned that he was an egocentric and narcisstic person who did not give a damn about his fellowmen. He created the Propaganda Movement and La Liga Filipina not because he wanted to end the Spanish colonizers through writing and other peaceful means what we can termed now as ceasefire.
He belittled the latter for not having the literacy and leadership which Rizal had been known to possess. The response of Blumentritt was different and unexpected which made Rizal furious because Blumentritt cited situations wherein a successful revolution headed by an ignorant and illiterate person had succeeded and and example was the French Revolution.
It was this reason that Rizal stopped communicating with Blumentritt, because deep inside he knows he should be the one to plan and carry out the revolution and not someone ignorant and illiterate like Bonifacio.
In one way or another, we knew that the Cry of Balintawak failed but it instilled something in us; an iota of nationalism and pride that we want to be free from the Spanish rule, that the urge of independence is slowly burning in our hearts. Sad to say, it was not a continuous process since there was not a brave man like Bonifacio again in the present times no matter how ignorant and illiterate as he is to stand up for our independence, for our freedom.
Until now we are still a neocolony of United States and nothing changes even if we are entering He had an admiration for Andres Bonifacio because of his will to let Philippines gain independence even if he was an ignorant and illiterate farmer. So with Claro M. Recto who happens to be a populist by heart. It was just the wrong turn of events which did not give any merit or recognition to a great statesman like Recto since the latter was not a member of the elite party of Americanistas.
He will arouse no mob. But heaven help the one whose pretensions he chooses to demolish.
Dissent and Counter-Consciousness
He wrote editorial columns criticizing President Manuel Quezon , which earned the attention of the President by responding to the article in one of his speeches. When the Second World War erupted, Constantino fought in Bataan and was a member of an intelligence team spying on the Japanese. He also worked as a journalist during the war. At the conclusion of the war, Constantino joined the Philippine Mission to the United Nations from to as its Executive Secretary.
Books by Renato Constantino
A Condensed Version of Renato Constantino's Works on Nationalism Essay