HALODULE PINIFOLIA PDF

Spesies : Thalassodendron ciliatum 2. Bivalvia adalah salah satu kelompok makro invertebrata yang paling banyak diketahui berasosiasi dengan lamun di Indonesia, dan mungkin yang paling banyak dieksploitasi. Sejumlah studi tentang di subtropik telah menunjukkan bahwa bivalvia merupakan komponen yang paling penting bagi ekosistem lamun, baik pada hubungannya dengan biomassa dan peranannya pada aliran energi pada sistem lamun Watson et al, Pinna sp. Padang lamun juga melindungi Pinna sp.

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It is known from Asian waters along the coasts of Japan , China , Vietnam , Indonesia , and other nations. It occurs on Pacific Islands such as Fiji.

It is resident in the Red Sea and Persian Gulf. It produces erect stems and alternately arranged leaves. The narrow, toothed leaf blades are up to 15 centimeters long and usually roughly a millimeter wide, [3] though leaf width is variable and can be up to 7 millimeters.

The tip of the leaf blade has three teeth. The male flower is borne on a short peduncle and is enclosed in a leaf. The leaves are wider in deeper waters. There are apparently two morphs , a narrow leaf and a wide leaf, rather than a continuous range.

The narrow leaf type is found closer to shore where it is exposed more often. The wide leaf type is found in deeper areas with cloudier waters. Plants that receive less light may need more leaf blade area to perform enough photosynthesis. It desiccates quickly. It is also sensitive to ultraviolet radiation. These factors restrict it to deeper intertidal waters than some other plants. It has been observed on high-sediment, rapidly evolving substrates in Australia and Indonesia.

In general its populations are stable, though it may be decreasing in localized areas, such as the coast of Bangladesh , and it fluctuates in some Australian waters. It is affected by some degradation of habitat by forces such as coastal development, siltation , sedimentation , weather events and tidal action, predation, parasites, disease, trawling and other fishing practices, dredging , pollution , eutrophication , and climate change.

Populations are monitored in the United Arab Emirates. It grows within the bounds of several marine parks and reserves in Africa. Populations can be disturbed only with permits in parts of Australia.

National University of Ireland, Galway. Accessed 28 June Halodule uninervis. In: IUCN Version Downloaded on 28 June Flora of China.

New South Wales Flora Online.

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