The deepening metaphor — 5. For popular science collections.? Buildings — Environmental engineering — Case studies. It highlights an exciting new approach to the michaell, where the fabric of the building responds to external changes and internal demands. Michael Wigginton ; Jude Harris. Wiggintkn View michsel editions and formats Summary: The specific requirements or preferences of your reviewing publisher, classroom teacher, institution or organization should be applied.
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The potential in building design for the reduction of energy consumption, and for the introduction of benefits of solar power for example became evident early in the twentieth century, and evolved significantly in the s.
The ecological aspects of the impact of buildings became more widely debated during the s and s, which also marked the beginnings of ecological design as we know it today. It is well established that buildings now account for nearly half of all delivered energy consumption across most of the developed world. The other dominant consumers are transport and industry, whose activities are closely associated with buildings and their location.
Among the principal final users, it is difficult to state exactly what constitutes building energy use, and what is more accurately described as process energy use.
In the domestic and service sectors it is accepted that the energy used is primarily consumed in buildings.
For the transport and agricultural sectors it is known that most of their energy is used Intelligent skins for other purposes. Buildings can be seen as major contributors to both ozone depletion and the greenhouse effect. They are also largely responsible for the extraction and consumption of a large array of non-renewable resources used in their construction and operation. Embodied energy It is not only the daily consumption of fossil-fuel-derived energy use in buildings, and the transportation of people and goods between buildings and settlements, which generates this energy use.
It is also the combustion of fossil-based fuels for the extraction and production of building materials, and the transportation of these materials to their construction sites. If a significant change in energy consumption trends is to be implemented, there must also be consideration of the existing building stock. It is therefore essential to consider not only low-energy strategies for new buildings, but also how energy saving strategies can be applied to existing buildings in refurbishment.
The incorporation of intelligent technologies does not have to be confined to new building design. The role of the design team Many believe that there is a moral imperative for architects and engineers involved in the design process to ensure that buildings reduce the The environmental context and design imperative 13 Intelligent skins environmental burden they impose on the planet.
One of the most significant contributions that can be made is to reduce building energy consumption. This does not only involve low-energy strategies for the building operation, but also consideration of the more widespread urban issues that influence fossil fuel use for buildings and transportation.
Ideally, a building is a power station in its own right. References 1 Meadows, D. III, Limits to Growth. Earth Island, Because of its distance from its ground controllers, most of its actions have to be preprogrammed and electrically or electronically generated, with its computers having control. As was explained in Chapter 1, the Intelligent Skin Programme is based on a different paradigm, related to the environmental performance of the whole building, and bears a much closer kinship with the biological phenomena of intelligence and response.
There is an inferred ability to perceive and comprehend meaning, and apply this acquired knowledge, through the thinking processes of reasoning. The word has its origins in fourteenth-century Latin, and is derived from the word intelligentia, which comes from intelligere, meaning to discern or select. Etymologically, the word has its origins in ideas of choosing between, derived from inter between and leger to choose.
Any discussion of the intelligent building must be prefaced by an explanation of why terms are being used, if only to try to justify them, or at least set out the definition being used. With AI, objects are provided with the capacity to perform similar functions to those that characterize human behaviour, by emulating the thought process of living beings. Artificial intelligence has been used to mimic the human capacity to process information by learning, inferring, and making and acting on decisions.
The science is sufficiently advanced to make it possible to program computers to deal with the logic of language structures — syntax. However, it is much more difficult to program rules for understanding and meaning — semantics. More complex computer programs have now advanced Buildings and intelligence: metaphors and models 17 Intelligent skins beyond simple programming, where decisions are based on rule-based inference.
Despite their obvious sophistication, these processes still do not approach the true complexity of intelligent, cognitive thought, let alone the autonomic sensory, comfort and life-preserving reactions, such as the dilating of a pupil or the changes of blood flow to the skin. Artificial neural networks The prospect of true intelligence is brought closer to reality with artificial neural networks ANNs , which are able to deal with more complex problems that cannot simply be described by a set of predefined rules or behaviour patterns.
The neural network attempts to recreate biological networks by mimicking the information processing functions of brain cells, such as those of generalization and error tolerance. The network is a collection of artificial neurons that perform summation and activation functions to determine their output. Inputs are filtered and modified by inter-connections, and a series of weighting factors, which serve to amplify or attenuate the output signal.
The neural network provides artificial systems with abilities such as learning and generalization, the ability to filter irrelevant data, the dexterity to cope with minor errors or incomplete inputs, and most importantly to adapt solutions over time to compensate for changing circumstances.
This is exemplified by the various naturally responsive systems seen in nature, such as the thermoregulatory powers of the human skin, the seasonal changes of coat in many mammals, and the opening and closing of flowers in response to sunlight.
One of the closest biological comparisons for the intelligent building is that of the human body, the skin of which provides the common metaphor for the cladding of a building. The circulation of fresh air bears a very close resemblance to our own breathing and respiratory systems. For all the characteristics which constitute our physical environment, sensor systems exist, or can be imagined, which replicate the human and animal senses, from the establishing of a level of illumination to the presence of pollution in the air.
The former provides for voluntary, and often reasoned control over skeletal muscle, whereas the Intelligent skins latter accounts for the involuntary movements of the cardiac and smooth muscles and glands. If this analogy is applied to buildings, the sort of intelligence considered in this book could be said to involve autonomic responses, where somatic responses might be those exercised by users, e.
Most examples of so-called intelligent buildings that were considered in this study were better able to demonstrate automatic responses than what has been called natural autonomic, intelligent reactions, which may be appropriate for the truly intelligent buildings of the future.
Buildings have been constructed and occupied for millennia without the introduction of concepts of intelligence, and it can justifiably be asked why these concepts should be relevant now. A conventional building, without the environmental services systems now usually incorporated within it, is a static, inanimate object. It moves only slightly in response to structural and thermal stresses. Its inert nature creates internal environmental conditions which vary with the changes of the external environment, modified by its mass and constructional configurations.
The climatic conditions which provide its environmental context in any geographical location vary between morning and afternoon, between day and night and between the seasons. There are also marked differences in climate between different locations around the globe, and these may become more pronounced as a result of global warming.
One of the primary functions of buildings is to protect occupants from the extremes of climate, and as such they act as moderators between internal and external conditions. This moderation action is complicated by the fact that buildings themselves incorporate systems which introduce loads, and thus contribute to the environmental equations which determine internal conditions. The inability of the passive inert building to provide comfortable conditions is the cause for the provision of environmental services systems, introduced to overcome the inadequacy of the static building.
It is the amount of this servicing which provides the greatest justification for the intelligent building. Intelligence can be used to improve the performance of the building fabric by making it more capable, so as to reduce the need for imported energy for heating, cooling, lighting and ventilation.
A combination of automatic control and pseudo-instinctive responses to these varying conditions may serve to improve occupancy conditions and operational efficiency in energy terms, bringing the notion of the zero energy building closer to reality. Occupancy patterns The environmental control task of buildings is complicated further by their occupancy patterns.
As a generalization, it can be assumed that most buildings remain unoccupied for approximately half of the time: places of work during the night and homes during the day. Occupation has two significant impacts on the performance demands of a building.
The presence of people makes environmental comfort including adequate light and ventilation, for example essential a constraint that does not necessarily apply when buildings are Buildings and intelligence: metaphors and models 19 Intelligent skins empty , and the presence of occupants creates the incidental environmental loads implied by their presence: respiration products, heat, and the loads generated by equipment, for example.
All of these factors support the case for variability, sometimes to reverse the inertia of buildings, by giving them the capacity to respond dynamically to the variations of climate, occupancy and time. Increased occupant control The case for the intelligent building is further reinforced by a variety of considerations, including more precise and predictive maintenance programmes, the optimization and minimization of energy use, and automatic control of increasingly complex building systems.
Very significant is the conventionally perceived requirement for increased user control. Occupants of buildings are placing greater emphasis on the need for individual control of their own local environments. This can often be to the detriment of the building environment as a whole. Maintaining the balance between momentary perceived comfort, and maintenance of comfort diurnally, is one of the tasks of the intelligent skin.
Intelligent buildings: the evolving models The term intelligent has been applied and misapplied to numerous inanimate objects, to describe behaviour purporting to resemble that of living beings.
Early users of the term also included manufacturers defining the intelligent building in terms of their own products. The term has become a marketing label which is assured of bestowing a project with instant credibility, and as such has been liberally applied. The network provided a link for both building systems controls, and tenant word and data processing. It will be noted that some of the case studies included in this book pre-date the City Place project, and strive much closer towards a level of true building intelligence.
Intelligent Skins_Michael Wigginton+Jude Harris