History[ edit ] A JNR map from the October English-language timetable, showing the then-new Tokaido Shinkansen line in red and conventional lines A 0 series set in Tokyo, May Japan was the first country to build dedicated railway lines for high-speed travel. Consequently, Japan had a greater need for new high-speed lines than countries where the existing standard gauge or broad gauge rail system had more upgrade potential. All three had worked on aircraft design during World War II. Over the next three years, the Ministry of Railways drew up more ambitious plans to extend the line to Beijing through a tunnel to Korea and even Singapore , and build connections to the Trans-Siberian Railway and other trunk lines in Asia.
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History[ edit ] A JNR map from the October English-language timetable, showing the then-new Tokaido Shinkansen line in red and conventional lines A 0 series set in Tokyo, May Japan was the first country to build dedicated railway lines for high-speed travel.
Consequently, Japan had a greater need for new high-speed lines than countries where the existing standard gauge or broad gauge rail system had more upgrade potential. All three had worked on aircraft design during World War II. Over the next three years, the Ministry of Railways drew up more ambitious plans to extend the line to Beijing through a tunnel to Korea and even Singapore , and build connections to the Trans-Siberian Railway and other trunk lines in Asia.
However, some construction did commence on the line; several tunnels on the present-day Shinkansen date to the war-era project. This train gave designers the confidence that they could safely build an even faster standard gauge train.
Thus the first Shinkansen, the 0 series, was built on the success of the Romancecar. In the s, the Japanese national attitude was that railways would soon be outdated and replaced by air travel and highways as in America and many countries in Europe. Initial cost estimates, however, had been deliberately understated and the actual figures were nearly double at about billion yen.
As the budget shortfall became clear in , Sogo resigned to take responsibility. It enabled day trips between Tokyo and Osaka, the two largest metropolises in Japan, changed the style of business and life of the Japanese people significantly, and increased new traffic demand. The last of these trains, with their classic bullet-nosed appearance, were retired on 30 November Prime Minister Kakuei Tanaka was an ardent supporter of the Shinkansen, and his government proposed an extensive network paralleling most existing trunk lines.
Many other planned lines were delayed or scrapped entirely as JNR slid into debt throughout the late s, largely because of the high cost of building the Shinkansen network. By the early s, the company was practically insolvent, leading to its privatization in Development of the Shinkansen by the privatised regional JR companies has continued, with new train models developed, each generally with its own distinctive appearance such as the series introduced by JR West.
Its success has influenced other railways in the world and the importance and advantage of high-speed rail has consequently been reevaluated. Routing[ edit ] Shinkansen routes are completely separate from conventional rail lines except Mini-shinkansen which goes through to conventional lines. Consequently, the shinkansen is not affected by slower local or freight trains except for Hokkaido Shinkansen while traveling through the Seikan Tunnel , and has the capacity to operate many high-speed trains punctually.
The lines have been built without road crossings at grade. Tracks are strictly off-limits with penalties against trespassing strictly regulated by law. Continuous welded rail and swingnose crossing points are employed, eliminating gaps at turnouts and crossings.
Long rails are used, joined by expansion joints to minimize gauge fluctuation due to thermal elongation and shrinkage. A combination of ballasted and slab track is used, with slab track exclusively employed on concrete bed sections such as viaducts and tunnels.
The slab track consists of rails, fasteners and track slabs with a cement asphalt mortar. The prefabricated upstands are made of either reinforced concrete or pre-stressed reinforced concrete; they prevent the track slab from moving along either the latitudinal or the longitudinal directions. It uses a comprehensive system of Automatic Train Protection. Electrical systems[ edit ] Shinkansen uses a 25 kV AC overhead power supply 20 kV AC on Mini-shinkansen lines , to overcome the limitations of the 1, V direct current used on the existing electrified narrow-gauge system.
Power is distributed along the axles of the train to reduce the heavy axle loads under single power cars. Trains[ edit ] Shinkansen trains are electric multiple units , offering fast acceleration, deceleration and reduced damage to the track because of the use of lighter vehicles compared to locomotives or power cars.
The coaches are air-sealed to ensure stable air pressure when entering tunnels at high speed. This includes delays due to uncontrollable causes, such as natural disasters. Traction[ edit ] The Shinkansen has used the electric multiple unit configuration from the outset, with the 0 Series Shinkansen having all axles powered. A greater proportion of motored axles results in higher acceleration, meaning that the Shinkansen does not lose as much time if stopping frequently.
Shinkansen lines have more stops in proportion to their lengths than high-speed lines elsewhere in the world. Injuries and a single fatality have been caused by doors closing on passengers or their belongings; attendants are employed at platforms to prevent such accidents. Eight of ten cars of the Toki No.
There were no casualties among the passengers. No passengers were injured. Several months after the expose of the Kobe Steel falsification scandal , which is among the suppliers of high-strength steel for Shinkansen trainsets, cracks were found upon inspection of a single bogie , and removed from service on 11 December As rail was already the primary urban mode of passenger travel, from that perspective it was akin to a sunk cost ; there was not a significant number of motorists to convince to switch modes.
The initial megalopolitan Shinkansen lines were profitable and paid for themselves. Connectivity rejuvenated rural towns such as Kakegawa that would otherwise be too distant from major cities. Although in some cases regional extension was frustrated by protracted land acquisition issues sometimes influenced by the cancellation of the Narita Shinkansen following fierce protests by locals , over time Shinkansen lines were built to relatively sparsely populated areas with the intent the network would disperse the population away from the capital.
Such expansion had a significant cost. JNR, the national railway company, was already burdened with subsidizing unprofitable rural and regional railways. Currently an important factor is the post bubble zero interest-rate policy that allows JR to borrow huge sums of capital without significant concern regarding repayment timing.
Current research is primarily aimed at reducing operational noise, particularly the tunnel boom phenomenon caused when trains transit tunnels at high speed. It enables automatic braking of Shinkansen trains in the case of large earthquakes. Trains have to reduce speed, which can disrupt the timetable. Sprinkler systems were later installed, but delays of 10 to 20 minutes still occur during snowy weather. Additionally, treefalls related to excess snow have caused service interruptions.
JR train timetables guide. How to find the timetable of the train in Japan.
Timetables and Seat Reservations Places of Interest Karuizawa developed with a unique culture after Archdeacon Alexander Croft Shaw, a Canadian missionary, made it a popular summer location to escape from the heat of lower lands. The beauty of such historical buildings as the Karuizawa Kogen Church and the Kyu-Mikasa Hotel attracts many people to this town. Using the Hokuriku Shinkansen, Karuizawa can be reached from Tokyo in about an hour, making it a great leisure spot for golf, horse riding, and outlet mall shopping or just some quiet time to enjoy any of the four seasons. Located a minute bus ride from Nagano Station is Zenkoji Temple, whose year-old main building is a designated national treasure.
JR train timetables guide. How to find the timetable of the train in Japan.
How to go from Nagano to Kanazawa? There are two shinkansen that operate the line between Nagano and Kanazawa, the Kagayaki and the Hakutaka shinkansen. The fastest train with limited stops is the Kagayaki, which take only 2. Specialities include sasazushi sushi on bamboo grass , Tomikura Soba, asparagus and mushrooms.