SMASH AND GRAB ANNEXATION OF SIKKIM PDF

C his kingdom extended from river Trisuli in the west to river Teesta in the east. Similarly, the Limbu tribes were ruled by 10 elected chiefs or Hangs from each of their clans to form a social and administrative body called Thibong Yakthum Tumyanghang tribal republic council or Ten Limbus Council. Na Hang was defeated and the Chilikchom were banished from Limbuwan. According to legend, the Guru blessed the land, introduced Buddhism to Sikkim and also foretold the era of the monarchy in the state, which would arrive centuries later.

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C his kingdom extended from river Trisuli in the west to river Teesta in the east. Similarly, the Limbu tribes were ruled by 10 elected chiefs or Hangs from each of their clans to form a social and administrative body called Thibong Yakthum Tumyanghang tribal republic council or Ten Limbus Council. Na Hang was defeated and the Chilikchom were banished from Limbuwan. According to legend, the Guru blessed the land, introduced Buddhism to Sikkim and also foretold the era of the monarchy in the state, which would arrive centuries later.

There are numerous stories regarding the migration of Tibetans into Sikkim and the establishment of the Sikkimese monarchy. The most popular states that in the 13th century, Guru Tashi , a prince from the Minyak House in Kham in Eastern Tibet , had a divine revelation one night instructing him to travel south to seek his fortunes. Guru Tashi settled down in the Chumbi Valley.

The Bhutias tried to convert the Sikkimese worshippers of nature to Buddhism and succeeded to an extent. The Dalai Lama sent the new Chogyal a silk scarf, the mitre of Guru Rinpoche and a sand image of him as a coronation present. Shortly after his coronation the new Chogyal appointed 12 kalons or ministers from the Bhutia community and split his kingdom into 12 Dzongs or administrative units, which each contained a fort.

Individual Dzongs were headed by a Dzonga drawn from amongst the Lepchas. The lands of Sikkim were leased as gifts to kazis and thikadars who in turn leased sub-plots to peasants at high rents. Mandals headmen and karbaris assistants to the mandals were employed by the kazis and thikadars as rent collectors and dispute mediators. Out of Sikkims revenue estates, 61 were leased to kazis and thikadars for fixed sums, five were given to monasteries and fifteen retained by the Chogyal for his private use.

However the Magars did not get along with the Bhutias and left Sikkim after they were defeated in a battle. The King called all the Kirat chiefs and proclaimed that Bhutias or Lhopsas, Tsongs or the Limbus and the Mempas or the Lepchas were all part of one family known as the Lho-Mehn-Tsong with the King as the father, the Lepchas as the mother and the Limbus as the sons and they were forbidden to fight amongst themselves.

The reign of this Chogyal was peaceful and saw the capital move from Yuksom to Rabdentse. This outraged his elder half-sister Pendiongmu, who ousted him with the help of the Bhutanese.

Chakdor Namgyal went into exile in Tibet. The Tibetan people subsequently expelled the Bhutanese army, and called Chakdor Namgyal back to Sikkim. Phuntsog Namgyal II , the illegitimate child of Gyurmed, succeeded his father in His reign was tumultuous in the face of attacks by the Bhutanese and the Nepalese who managed to capture the capital Rabdentse. Tenzing Namgyal , Chogyal from to , was a weak ruler, and his sovereignty saw most of Sikkim being appropriated by Nepal.

The king of Sikkim went into exile in Tibet for a second time. Finding Rabdentse too close to the Nepalese border, he shifted the capital to Tumlong. Relations with the British Empire[ edit ] With the arrival of the British in neighbouring India, Sikkim allied itself with them as they had a common enemy — the Gorkha Kingdom of Nepal.

The infuriated Nepalese attacked Sikkim with vengeance, over-running most of the region including the Terai. Meanwhile, the British were looking for a route to establish trading links with Tibet. An offshoot of the ancient Silk Road through Sikkim meant that the kingdom was ideal as a transit route.

A secondary reason for the establishment of links was to quell the growing Russian influence in Tibet in the context of The Great Game. However ties between Sikkim and India grew sour with the taxation of the area of Morang by the British. An internal disturbance, which began in , gave the British the opportunity to secure the cession of Darjeeling to British Sikkim in view of its perceived advantages as a sanitorium.

They were detained by the Sikkim government at the instigation of the pro-Tibetan "mad Dewan" T. Namguey, which led to a punitive British expedition against the Himalayan kingdom. In the same year, signature of the Treaty of Tumlong effectively made Sikkim a de facto protectorate of the British. The Chogyals endeavored to modernize Sikkim in the succeeding decades, along with their army. In , the British, interested in trade with Tibet, launched a brief expedition into Sikkim.

In , the Tibetans were defeated and northern Sikkim came under the rule of British India. The British established new landholdings in Sikkim, but released the Chogyal only to have him captured again in In , the capital was shifted to Gangtok.

In , the Chogyal was released, but the British governors in India reneged on an agreement — the Ten Clauses Agreement — which returned sovereignty to Sikkim.

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Sikkim's smash & grab story

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