Faujin Vikrama told the king that the pleasure was his because he has been able to meet Bali, with whom the Lord Vishnu himself came to beg. He picked up the ruby and vikramathithan stories in english for an expert. However, Vikramaditya goes abroad, consigning the throne to the 3rd son, Bharthari. The collection consists of a series of unrelated tales, all told within the context of a frame story. The story will have a question at stoies end. Burton includes it in his introduction.
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He is also known as Vikrama, Bikramjit and Vikramarka arka also means "sun". Its existence and its mention of Vikramaditya is confirmed only by adaptations in surviving works dating to the sixth century and later and testimonials by contemporary poets. Since there is no surviving copy of Brihatkatha, it is not known if it contained the Vikramaditya legends; its post-Gupta adaptations, such as the Katha-Sarit-Sagara , may contain interpolations.
However, many stanzas in this work are not common to its revisions and are apparent Gupta-period expansions. Vasubandhu then wrote Paramartha Saptati, illustrating deficiencies in Samkhya philosophy. Around the same time, a Buddhist monk known as Manoratha paid a barber , gold coins for shaving his head. Vikramaditya, who prided himself on his generosity, was embarrassed and arranged a debate between Manoratha and non-Buddhist scholars.
After Manoratha defeated 99 of the scholars, the king and other non-Buddhists shouted him down and humiliated him at the beginning of the last debate. Before his death, Manoratha wrote to his disciple Vasubandhu about the futility of debating biased, ignorant people.
In this debate, Vasubandhu defeated non-Buddhist scholars. The Vikramaditya era was used in southern and western India. Al-Biruni learned the following legend about the Shaka era: A Shaka ruler invaded north-western India and oppressed the Hindus.
The astronomers and other people started using this date as the beginning of a new era. The Vikramaditya era named after the first, and the Shaka era was associated with the defeat of the Shaka ruler by the second Vikramaditya. Both legends are historically inaccurate. There is a difference of years between the beginning of the two eras, and Vikramaditya and Shalivahana could not have lived simultaneously. The association of the era beginning in 57 BCE with Vikramaditya is not found in any source before the ninth century.
Sircar and D. Bhandarkar believe that the name of the era changed to Vikrama Samvat during the reign of Chandragupta II , who had adopted the title of "Vikramaditya" see below. Each legend has several fantasy stories within a story, illustrating his power. According to the legend, Vikramaditya was an adversary of Narasimha who invaded Dakshinapatha and besieged Pratishthana; he was defeated and forced to retreat. He then entered Pratishthana in disguise and won over a courtesan.
Vikramaditya was her lover for some time before secretly returning to Pataliputra. If a limb of one of these miraculous statues was broken off and gifted to someone, the golden limb would grow back.
Mourning the loss of her lover, the courtesan turned to charity; known for her gifts of gold, she soon surpassed Narasimha in fame. Vikramaditya married the courtesan and brought her to Pataliputra. It is a collection of 25 stories in which the king tries to capture and hold a vetala who tells a puzzling tale which ends with a question.
In addition to Kathasaritsagara, the collection appears in three other Sanskrit recensions , a number of Indian vernacular versions and several English translations from Sanskrit and Hindi; it is the most popular of the Vikramaditya legends. Later texts, such as the Sanskrit Vetala-Vikramaditya-Katha and the modern vernacular versions, identify the king as Vikramaditya of Ujjain.
According to the legend, Indra and other devas told Shiva that the slain asuras were reborn as mlechchhas. Shiva then ordered his attendant, Malyavat, to be born in Ujjain as the prince of the Avanti kingdom and kill the mlechchhas.
The deity appeared to the Avanti king Mahendraditya in a dream, telling him that a son would be born to his queen Saumyadarshana. He asked the king to name the child Vikramaditya, and told him that the prince would be known as "Vishamashila" because of his hostility to enemies.
Malyavat was born as Vikramaditya; when the prince grew up, Mahendraditya retired to Varanasi. Vikramaditya began a campaign to conquer a number of kingdoms and subdued vetalas , rakshasas and other demons. His general, Vikramashakti, conquered the Dakshinapatha in the south; Madhyadesa in the central region; Surashtra in the west, and the country east of the Ganges ; Vikramashakti also made the northern kingdom of Kashmira a tributary state of Vikramaditya.
Virasena, the king of Sinhala , gave his daughter Madanalekha to Vikramaditya in marriage. The emperor also married three other women Gunavati, Chandravati and Madanasundari and Kalingasena, the princess of Kalinga. In Brihatkathamanjari and Kathasaritsagara, Malyavat is later born as Gunadhya the author of Brihatkatha, on which these books are based.
According to the chronicle Vikramaditya appointed his friend, the poet Matrigupta, ruler of Kashmir. In this collection of frame stories , the Paramara king Bhoja discovers the ancient throne of Vikramaditya after several centuries. The throne has 32 statues, who are actually apsaras who were turned into stone by a curse.
When Bhoja tries to ascend the throne, one apsara comes to life and tells him to ascend the throne only if he is as magnanimous as Vikramaditya as revealed by her tale. Pleased with his humility, the statues finally let him ascend the throne. The author and date of the original work are unknown. Since the story mentions Bhoja who died in , it must have been composed after the 11th century.
In the Vetala tales, Vikramaditya is the central character of the frame story but is unconnected with the individual tales except for hearing them from the vetala. According to the text 3. The emperor united the four Agnivanshi clans by marrying princesses from the three non-Paramara clans: Vira from the Chauhan clan, Nija from the Chalukya clan, and Bhogavati from the Parihara clan.
All the gods except Chandra celebrated his success a reference to the Chandravanshis , rivals of Suryavanshi clans such as the Paramaras. After a flawless reign, he ascended to heaven.
Gorakhnath , Bhartrhari , Lomaharsana, Saunaka and other sages recited the Puranas and the Upapuranas.
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